The Role of Chemistry in History

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Entries Tagged as 'Estradiol'

History’s Effect on Estradiol

April 27th, 2008 · 1 Comment

Introduction to Estradiol, Definition and Structure, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Medicinal Purposes, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Therapeutic Purposes, History’s Effect on Estradiol

Diethylstibestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen developed in the 1930′s for women who experienced problems while pregnant. It was given to women who experienced miscarriages or premature deliveries. After nearly 30 years of administering the drug, the FDA realized that it was linked to a rare form of vaginal cancer in the female offspring of the people who took DES.

There are many risks associated with DES including breast cancer, structural differences in the reproductive tracts of the offspring, infertility, clear cell cancer, and pregnancy complications.

A study at Yale University discovered that interaction with DES changes a gene necessary for uterine development. Exposure with DES leads to imprinting in the genetic memory and changing the structure of genes, meaning that offspring of people who used DES would suffer the effects of the drug.

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Categories: Estradiol

Estradiol’s Effect on History: Therapeutic Purposes

April 27th, 2008 · Comments Off

Introduction to Estradiol, Definition and Structure, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Medicinal Purposes, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Therapeutic Purposes, History’s Effect on Estradiol

  • Hormone replacement therapy
    • If a woman has low estrogen levels during or after menopause, she will be given a set of drugs to boost hormone levels
      • These drugs will be given in a variety of ways: patches, creams, gels, or tablets
      • Dosage varies depending on the case but estrogens are typically taken every day
    • Transgendered males will take estrogens to help grow breasts, change hair growth, and redistribute body fat
      • Estradiol can be given orally, nasally, sublingually, transdermally, or implanted
      • Doses are normally very high for the first few years but then may decrease with time
  • Blocking estrogens
    • Every once in a while estrogens will be blocked when causing unwanted circumstances such as breast cancer or gynecomastia, a condition in which males grow large breasts
    • The aromatase enzyme converts testosterone into estradiol so by inhibiting this action, estrogen levels can be decreased

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Categories: Estradiol

Estradiol’s Effect on History: Medicinal Purposes

April 27th, 2008 · Comments Off

Introduction to Estradiol, Definition and Structure, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Medicinal Purposes, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Therapeutic Purposes, History’s Effect on Estradiol

  • Used for hypoestrogenism
    • A condition in which a woman has low levels of estrogen
    • It can be attributed to scoliosis, excessive exercise, or not eating well
    • Can be given a variety of drugs but estradiol will typically be administered transdermally in this situation, in the form of a patch
  • Estradiol is altered to ethinylestradiol which is the main ingredient in oral contraceptive pills
    • Estrogens help control a woman’s cycle
    • They also prevent ovulation by stopping the follicular development
  • Helps with symptoms of menopause
    • During menopause the ovaries stop working which means they stop producing estrogen hormones
    • Reduces hot flashes and decreases vaginal dryness
    • Doctors will sometimes recommend hormone therapy
  • Used also for osteoporosis
    • A condition in which the bones become less dense and strong which leads to increase risk of fracture
    • Common in elders, especially postmenopausal women
    • When estrogen or testosterone levels drop there is a decrease in the bone mineral density
    • Estradiol is administered to help keep bones strong and prevent fractures
  • Reduces the risk of heart attacks and strokes
  • It can also even be used to treat acne or hair loss
  • Administered orally, transdermally, topically, and vaginally

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Categories: Estradiol

Definition and Structure

April 24th, 2008 · 3 Comments

  Introductionto Estradiol, Definition and Structure, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Medicinal Purposes, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Therapeutic Purposes, History’s Effect on Estradiol

Definition:

  • Estradiol is a sex hormone present in both females and males.
  • Estradiol is one of the three naturally occuring estrogens in females, along with estriol and estrone
  • It is present in women from puberty until menopause
  • It is essential for the reproductive system, as well as for sexual reasons
  • Affects many of the body’s major systems
  • Synthetic estradiol is used in the pill, for hormone replacement therapy in transsexuals, and for postmenopausal women
  • Estradiol is derived from cholesterol which is converted into androstenedione. Androstendione is then converted to testosterone which in turn is converted to estradiol

Structure

  • C18H24O2
  • Molecular mass is 272.39
  • White, crystalline solid
  • Structure:

Estradiol

  • Conversion from Testosterone to Estradiol:

Conversion


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Categories: Estradiol

Estradiol

April 22nd, 2008 · Comments Off

Introduction to Estradiol, Definition and Structure, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Medicinal Purposes, Estradiol’s Effect on History: Therapeutic Purposes, History’s Effect on Estradiol

 

 

Fish

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Categories: Estradiol