The Role of Chemistry in History

The Role of Chemistry in History header image 4

Entries Tagged as 'Cisplatin'

Historical Significance

April 29th, 2008 · Comments Off

Structure and Properties | Early Cancer Treatments | Discovery | Treatment and Side Effects | Historical Significance 

  Cisplatin Chemotherapy has had a dramatic effect on history. With it’s approval by the FDA in 1978, tens of thousands of people have been treated by Cisplatin and at least temporarily cured on cancer. Furthermore, many of these people have avoided dangerous surgeries or risky hormone treatments. With Cisplatin treating sarcoma cancers, cancers of soft tissue, bones, muscles, and blood vessels have become dramatically less  deadly. 

[Read more →]

Categories: Cisplatin

Treatment and Side Effects

April 29th, 2008 · Comments Off

Structure and Properties | Early Cancer Treatments | Discovery | Treatment and Side Effects | Historical Significance 

Treatment

  Cisplatin was approved for use in the United States in 1978 by the Food and Drug Administration after years of studies and testing.

images1.jpeg

Cisplatin is used to treat primarily sarcoma cancers. It is believed to kill cancer cells by binding to them and interfering with the cell’s ability to repair itself. This eventually leads to the death of the cell.

Cisplatin is used through chemotherapy (the treatment of disease through the use of chemicals to kill or modify cells). Cisplatin falls into the Alkylating Agent group because it often adds an alkyl group to electronegative groups in cells. 

8325cisplatin.gif 

Side Effects

-Fatigue

-Nausea

-Neurotoxicity

-Nephrotoxicity

[Read more →]

Categories: Cisplatin

Discovery

April 29th, 2008 · 1 Comment

Structure and Properties | Early Cancer Treatments | Discovery | Treatment and Side Effects | Historical Significance

 500px-cisplatinsynthesis1.jpg

The compound for Cisplatin was first described 1845, but the structure was not  deduced until 1893 by Alfred Werner. Over 70 years later, in the 1960′s,  Barnett Rosenberg and his staff at Michigan State University were able discover that electrolysis of a platinum electrode resulted in the production of cisplatin. Furthermore, this inhibited binary fission in the E. Coli bacteria and resulted in the substantial growth of their normal size. 

Consequently, Rosenberg was compelled to further test Cisplatin. His staff conducted several experiments that artificially placed sarcomas in rats and tested the effects of different platinum coordination complexes on them.  Cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum was deemed the most effective out of this group. As a result, Cisplatin was now its way to becoming a miracle drug to help fight the growing plague of cancer. 

medicine_case__first_aid_case2.jpg                                                         ist2_4407221_medicine_cabinet.jpg

[Read more →]

Categories: Cisplatin

Early Cancer Treatments

April 29th, 2008 · Comments Off

Structure and Properties | Early Cancer Treatments | Discovery | Treatment and Side Effects | Historical Significance 

 

med2.jpg

  The earliest known treatment of cancer dates back to 2500 BC with the Egyptians. Ancient records tell of surgeries to remove tumors from the body as well as other medicines of antiquity.  During the Roman Empire, praying and ancient rituals were used to help treat the growth of cancerous tumors on the body. 

In the late 16th and 17th centuries, a better understanding of the human anatomy led to breakthroughs in the treatment of cancer and experiments led to disprove the myth excess black bile caused cancer. By the 19th century, microscopes helped scientists understand the interaction between the body and the disease.

In 20th century, curing cancer had become a goal of many scientists, and in 1938, the United States Congress founded the National Cancer Institute. As a result, surgeries were vastly improved, hormone therapy was established, and countless hours of priceless research has been done. 

[Read more →]

Categories: Cisplatin

Structure and Properties

April 29th, 2008 · Comments Off

Structure and Properties | Early Cancer Treatments | Discovery | Treatment and Side Effects | Historical Significance 

The chemical formula for Cisplatin is Cl 2H6N2Pt and its molecular weight is 300.05. It is made up of two chloride molecules, six hydrogen molecules, two nitrogen molecules, and one central platinum molecule. Its structure name is CIS-diamminedichloroplatinum, and this is significant because being a cis-isomer is what makes Cisplatin so effective.[1] This is because the it allows for the same molecules to be on the same side, and thus, effectively latch onto cancerous cells. Cisplatin is a deep yellow color and a solid. It also will decompose at 270 degrees Celsius and will become trans with contact with many liquids.

             Cisplatin is created through taking potassium tetrachloroplatinate, K2PtCl4,  and adding the a NH3 compound to one of the four positions around the platinum molecule. Next, another  NH3 compound is added next to the other NH3 to insure the compound becomes a cis-isomer. The next step calls for the addition of the Cl molecule, it is added after the NH3 because it has the tendency to be more trans in a molecule, to the compound. Finally, the next Cl is added to the compound after a great deal of chemical reaction the synthesis yields Cisplatin.[2]




[1] S. Dhara (2007). The Synthesis of Cisplatin. Indian Journal of Chemistry 1970, p.

            123–134.

[2] S. Dhara (2007). The Synthesis of Cisplatin. Indian Journal of Chemistry 1970, p.

            123–134.

[Read more →]

Categories: Cisplatin

Cisplatin

April 29th, 2008 · Comments Off

Structure and Properties | Early Cancer Treatments | Discovery | Treatment and Side Effects | Historical Significance 

Introduction

 

 

Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat many different types of cancer. It was first deduced in 1893 by Alferd Werner. However, it was not until the 1960′s that scientists at Michigan State were able to produce Cisplatin. After a series of tests and experiments, it was concluded that Cisplatin could be an effective treatment for Sarcoma cancers (Cancer of the connective or supportive tissues).

[Read more →]

Categories: Cisplatin