The Role of Chemistry in History

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References

May 11th, 2008 · 9 Comments ·

Introduction | History | Chemical Structure | How it Works | Side Effects | How it Changed History | Terms | References

References

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  • Barry, W., Meinzinger, M. & Howse, C. (July 13, 1984). Ibuprofen overdose and exposure in utero: results from a postmarketing voluntary reporting system. The American Journal of Medicine, (77), 35-39. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6465161 Pub Med.
  • BASF Aktiengesellschaft. Technical Information: Ibuprofen. January 2004. 15 April 2008 http://www.ibuprofen-foundation.com/what-ibuprofen/documents/TIIbuprofen.pdf.
  • Brunton, L. L., Lazo, J. S. & Parker, K. L. (2006). The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (11th ed.). In (L. L. Brunton, Ed.). New York: McGRAW-HILL, Medical Publishing Division.
  • Holubek, W., Stolbach, A., Nurok, S., Lopez, O., Wetter, A. & Nelson, L. (June 2007). A Report of Two Deaths from Massive Ibuprofen Ingestion. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 3(2), 52-53. Retrieved April 15, 2008, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18072160 Pub Med.
  • Lanza, F. (July 13, 1984). Endoscopic studies of gastric and duodenal injury after the use of ibuprofen, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The American Journal of Medicine, (2), 19-24. Retrieved April 18, 2008, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6465160 Pub Med.
  • Mar, D. (June 1981). The “Simple” Analgesics. The American Journal of Nursing, 81(6), 1206-1208. Retrieved April 18, 2008, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3424820 JSTOR.
  • Moore, N. (April 2003). Forty years of ibuprofen use. International Journal of Clinical Practice, (135), 28-31. Retrieved May 2, 2008, from http://www.ibuprofen-foundation.com/news/conferences/40yrs.pdf
  • Moore, N. (2007). Ibuprofen, a journey from prescription to over-the-counter use. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 100(48), 2-6. Retrieved April 27, 2008, from http://www.rsmpress.co.uk/S48-1-2.pdf
  • Nelson, D. L. & Cox, M. M. (2004). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). W. H. Freeman.
  • Pennisi, E. Building a Better Aspirin. Science, 280(5367), 1191-1192. Retrieved April 15, 2008, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2896046 JSTOR.
  • Rainsford, K. (April 2008). Discovery, mechanisms of action and safety of ibuprofen. International Journal of Clinical Practice, (135), 3-8. Retrieved May 2, 2008, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12723739 Pub Med.
  • Smith, A. (Ed.). (2000). Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Travis, J. (2000, August 12). Ibuprofen Cuts Alzheimer Protein Build-up. Science News, 158, 7., p. 101. Retrieved April 15, 2008, from http://www.jstor.com/stable/3981212 JSTOR.
  • Volans, G. & Colbridge, M. (2003). Ibuprofen Overdose. International Journal of Clinical Practice, (135), 54-60. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from http://www.joplink.net/prev/200605/ref/09-008.html

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Properties of H2O

May 8th, 2008 · 8 Comments ·

 

HOME | INTRO OF WATER
PROPERTIES OF H2O| ORIGINS OF LIFE
HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION

  • Tetrahedral electron-pair geometry gives it its polar, bent molecular geometry
  • Oxygen atom partially negative and both of the hydrogen atoms partially positive
  • Water molecules bond to each other through hydrogen bonding
  • Water in its liquid state constantly forms and breaks hydrogen bonds which gives water its fluid nature
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References

May 8th, 2008 · 1 Comment ·

Morphine: An Introduction | Discovery and Synthesis of Morphine | Addiction and Opiate Receptors | | History Affects Morphine: The Hypodermic Needle | History Affects Morphine II: Cultural Antipathy and Anti-Narcotics Law| References

 

References

(1892). History of Opium, Opium Eating and Smoking. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 21, 329-332.

Berridge, V., & Edwards, G. (1987). Opium and the People. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Blakemore, P., & White, J. (2002). Morphine, the Proteus of Organic Molecules. Chemical Communications, 1159-1168.

Booth, M. (1999). Opium: A History. New York, New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.

Brownstein, M. (1993). A Brief History of Opiates, Opiod Peptides, and Opiod Receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90(12), 5391-5393.

Courtwright, D. (1982). Dark Paradise: A History of Opiate Addiction in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Freemantle, M. (2005, June 5). Top Pharmaceuticals: Morphine. Retrieved Apr. 28, 2008, from http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/83/8325/8325morphine.html

Goldberg, R. (2005). Drugs Across the Spectrum (with InfoTrac ). New York: Brooks Cole.

Hamilton, G., & Baskett, T. (2000). History of Anesthesia. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 47(4), 367-374.

Herbert, R., Venter, H., & Pos, S. (2000). Do Mammals Make Their Own Morphine?. Natural Product Reports, 17, 317-322.

Hodgson, B. (2001). In the Arms of Morpheus: The Tragic History of Morphine, Laudanum and Patent Medicines. Toronto: Firefly Books.

Karch, S. (2005). A Brief History of Cocaine, Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

Le Couteur, P., & Burreson, J. (2003). Napoleon’s Buttons. New York: Tarcher/Penguin.

“Opium Throughout History.” (n.d.). Retrieved Apr. 15, 2008, from http://www.pbs.org/
wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/heroin/etc/history.html

Richards, J. (2002). Opium and the British Empire: The Opium Commission of 1895. Modern Asian Studies, 36(2), 375-420.

Schiff Jr. , P. (2002). Opium and Its Alkaloids. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 66, 186-194.

Schwarz, S., & Huxtable, R. (2001). The Isolation of Morphine. Molecular interventions, 1(4), 189-191.

Shughart, W. (1997). Taxing Choice: The Predatory Politics of Fiscal Discrimination. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Stimmel, B., & Shaffer, H. (1984). The Addictive Behavior. New York: Routledge. Waldron, K. (2007). The Chemistry of Everything. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

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Cactus

May 8th, 2008 · 7 Comments ·

 

BACK
cactus

Water is present in life, even in the driest locations.
Over half of this cactus’ composition is water.
BACK

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References

May 8th, 2008 · Comments Off ·

Introduction / DDT molecule / Malaria / World War II

Environmental Problems / Insect Resistance / Begin Using Again?  /  References

 

References

 

Considine, G. (2005) Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Chemistry.  New Jersey: Wiley-Interscience, p. 849.

Couteur, P., & Burreson, J. (2003).  Napoleon’s Buttons.  New York: Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

Glausiusz, J. (2007). Can a maligned pesticide save lives?.  Discover, 28(11), 34-36.

Harrison, G. (1978).  Mosquitoes, Malaria and Man.  New York: E.P. Dutton.

Harrison, K. (2008, May).  Chemistry, Structures & 3D Molecules. Retrieved May 07, 2008 from http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=90.

Leary, J., & Fishbein, W., & Salter, L. (1946).  DDT and the Insect Problem.  New York:     McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

Lubick, N. (2007). DDT’s Resurrection.  Environmental Science and Technology, 41(18),    6323-6325.

Malaria Foundation International (1999-2003).  Is DDT still effective and needed in Malaria Control? Retrieved May 07, 2008 from   http://www.malaria.org/DDTcosts.html.

Milius, S. (1998). Birds’ eggs started to think long before DDT.  Science News, 153(17), 261.

Move against Malaria. (2006).  Nature Medicine, 12(8), 863.

Packard, R. (1997).  Malaria Dreams: Postwar Visions of Health and Development in the Third World.  Medical Anthropology, 17, 279-296.

Pearce, F. (2007). Set free to kill again.  New Scientist, 196(2624), 58-9.

Roberts, D., Laughlin, L., Hsheih, P., & Legters, L. (1997).  DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America.  Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3,      295-302.

Russell, E. (1999). The Strange Career of DDT: Experts, Federal Capacity, and Environmentalism in World War II.  Technology and Culture, 40(4), 770-796.

Tren, R., & Bate, Roger. (2001).  Malaria and the DDT Story.  London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.

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References

May 8th, 2008 · 2 Comments ·

References

Bergman, C. (1989, July 28). Tobacco’s cloudy image on the silver screen.

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Christian Science Monitor, p.19.

Borio, G. (n.d.) The tobacco timeline. Retrieved April 30, 2008, from http://www.tobacco.org/resources/history/Tobacco_History.html

DeFord, S. (1997, May 14). Tobacco; The noxious weed that built a nation. The Washington Post, p.19.

Ginn, K. (2001, October 3). It used to be so cool. The Scotsman, p. 2.

Grunberg, N. E. (2007, November 7). A neurological basis for nicotine withdraw. PNAS, 104, 46.

Jackson, D. Z. (1997, July 4). Slavery’s roots in tobacco. Boston Globe, p. A15.h

Lamb, G. M. (2001, February 23). Despite ban, films flaunt cigarettes. Christian Science Monitor, p. 9.

Mancall, P. C. (2004). Tales tobacco told in sixteenth-century Europe. Environmental History, 9(4), 648-678.

NIDA for Teens (n.d). Tobacco. Retrieved April 1, 2008 from http://teens.drugabuse.gov/facts/facts_nicotine1.asp

Rifkind, H. (2006, July 29). Smoke it again, sam. The Courier Mail, pp. M08.

Perry, M. (2006, August 18). Understanding nicotine dependence. Practice Nurse, 39-43.

 

Introduction to Nicotine | A Brief History of Tobacco | Chemical Properties | Addiction | Toxicity | Tobacco and America | Tobacco and the Cinema | References

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References

May 8th, 2008 · 2 Comments ·

Back to Intro Chemistry of Testosterone Historical Significance

Discovery and Synthesis

The Future of Testosterone

Works Cited

Berthold, A.A. 1849. Transplantation of tests. Trans. By D.P Quiring. Bull. History

Med., (1944) 16:42-46.

Cohen, Jeffrey, and Bonnie Wheeler, eds. Becoming Male in the Middle Ages. New York

and London: Garland, 1997.

Djerassi, Carl. Steroids Made It Possible. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society,

1990.

“DOCTORS WHO DISAGREE.; THE BROWN-SEQUARD ELIXIR DIVIDES THE

MEDICAL PROFESSION.” The New York Times 23 Aug. 1889: 2.

Freeman, E., D. Bloom, and E. McGuire. “A Brief History of Testosterone.” The Journal

of Urology 165 (2001): 371-373.

Guthrie, Marisa. “Napoleon Complex; Bonaparte’s Genius is Brilliantly Captured.” The

Boston Herald 8 Nov. 2000.

Greene, Kelly. “When We’Re All 64.” The Wall Street Journal 26 Dec. 2005.

Hoberman, J. M., and C. E. Yesalis. “The History of Synthetic Testosterone.” Scientific American (1995): 76-81.

Hendrickson, James B. The Molecules of Nature. New York: W. A. Benjamin Inc., 1965.

Hoffman, Roald. “For a Few Atoms More.” American Scientist 96 (2008): 104-106.

Klotz, Fia. “Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Criminality.” Uppsala Dissertations (2008).

Koert, William, comp. About the Anabolics Book. 14 Sept. 2006. 8 May 2008 <http://www.ergogenics.org/anabolenboek/index0en.html>.

Leopold Ruzicka. 13 September 1887-26 September 1976

Morley, J., H . Perry. “Androgen deficiency in aging men: Role of testosterone

replacement therapy.” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine ,Volume 135 , Issue 5,(2000): 370 – 378.

Russell, Cheryl. 100 Predictions for the Baby Boom. New York and London: Plenum P,

1987.

Strauss, Richard H., ed. Drugs and Performance in Sports. Sydney, Australia: W.B.

Saunders Company, 1987.

Taylor, William N. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete. London: Macfarland and

Company, 1982.

Voy, Robert. Drugs, Sports. and Politics. Champign, Illinois: Leisure P, 1991.

Watts, Janet. Drugs, Steroids and Sports. New York: Franklin Watts, 1988.

Wilson, Jean D., and Claus Roehrborn. “The Long-Term Consequences of Castration in

Men.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 84 (1999): 4324-4331.

Zimmerman, Frank. “Origin and Significance of the Jewish Rite of Circumcision.”

Psychoanalytic Review 38 (1951): 105-114.

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References

May 8th, 2008 · Comments Off ·

Introduction, Chemistry, How It Works, Physiological Effects, Health Risk, Crack Epidemic, Crack on Black Crime, Crack Killed the 80s and 90s, History, Crack in America, References

 

Ashley, Richard (1976). Cocaine: Its History, Uses and Effects. New York, NY: Warner

Books .

Cooper, Edith F. (2002). The Emergence of Crack Cocaine Abuse. Nova Science

Fullilove, http://cheapcialiswww.com/ R.

custom term paper

E., Fullilove, M. T., Bowser, B. P., and Gross, S. A. (1990). Risk of

Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Black Adolescent Crack Users in Oakland

and San Francisco, California. Z Am. Med. Assoc. 263: 851-855.

Publishers.

Grogger, , & Willis, Michael (2000). The Emergence of

Crack Cocaine and The Rise of Urban Crime Rates. The Review of Economics

and Statistics. 83 No. 4, 519-529.

Inciardi Ph. D, James (1995).Crack, Crack House Sex, and HIV Risk. Archives of Sexual

Behaviors. Vol. 24, No. 3, 249- 269

Karch, Steven B, (2006). A Brief History of Cocaine: Second Edition. CRC Press.

King, Rufus G (1953). The Narcotics Bureau and the Harrison Act: Jailing the Healers

and the Sick. The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 62, Retrieved May, 5, 2008, from

http://www.jstor.org

L.A. Fingerhut, D.D. Ingram, and J.J. Feldman, “Firearm Homicide Among Black

Teenage Males in Metropolitan Counties,” Journal of the American Medical

Association 267 (1992):3054-3058

Larrat, E.P., Zierler , S., & Mayer, K. (1994). Cocaine USe and Heterosexual Exposure to

Immunodeficiency Virus. Epidemiology. Vol. 5, No. 4, 398-403.

Marez, Curtis (2004). Drug Wars: The Political Economy of Narcotics. Minneapolis MN:

University of Minnesota Press.

Petersen Ph.D., R, & Stillmen M.D., R (1977). Cocaine. National Institute of Drug Abuse,

Retrieved May 8, 2008, from http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/13.pdf.

M.F. Goldsmith, “Sex Tied to Drugs = STD spread,” Journal of the Almerican Medical Association 260 (1988):2009.

Reinarman, C., & Levine, H. (1997). Crack In America: Demon Drugs and Social

Justice.Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Schultz, S., Zweig, M., Sing, T., and Htoo, M. (1990). Congenital syphilis: New York

City, 1986-1988. Am. J. Dis. Child. 144: 279.

Wachtler, S. The State of the Judiciary 1990. Report from State of New York Unified

Court System, pp. 3-5.

Watkins, B., Fullilove, R., & Fullilove, M. Arms against Illness: Crack Cocaine and Drug Policy in the United States. Health and Human Rights, Vol. 2, No. 4, Retrieved May 5, 2008, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/4065186.pdf.

http://www.3dchem.com/moremolecules.asp?ID=279&othername=Crack

http://cocaine.org/cokestrut.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14561847

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Crack Killed the 80s and 90s

May 8th, 2008 · 1 Comment ·

Introduction, Chemistry, How It Works, Physiological Effects, Health Risk, Crack Epidemic, Crack on Black Crime, Crack Killed the 80s and 90s, History, Crack in America, References

Crack cocaine has significantly shaped history, and especially the 1980’s and 1990’s.

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A study found in The Review of Economics and Statistics, the authors found that by using information provided by 27 different metropolitan areas, that the arrival of crack cocaine led to substantial crime increases in late 1980s and early 1990s.

The number of reported offenses for recorded criminal categories which are murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny theft and auto theft. For each of the seven categories of criminal offenses significant increases were shown to have occurred after the arrival of crack cocaine to those areas.

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As you can see from looking at the percentage of change, the rise in crime proved to be overwhelming in these urban areas, “from 1987 through12989, the firearm homicide rate amongst black males age 15 to 19 years of age increased 71 percent to 85.3 deaths per 100,000 populations,” (Fingerhut, 1992) at the same time when teenage fire-arm death were mostly concentrated in metropolitan areas. Many scholars argue that the alarming number of homicides was triggered through crack related violence. “Teenaged dealers started carrying guns to school but no such alliance[s] w[ere] initiated to control the crack epidemic that precipitated the violence”. (Watkins et al, 1998)

Crack proved to be “an unparallel destructive force, undermining safety, stability and health in inner cities.”(Watkins et al. 43) In 1988, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cited Crack use, coupled with the practice of bartering sexual services in exchange for the drug, as a factor in the increase of STD’s (Goldsmith, 1988)

The discovery of crack cocaine is directly responsible for the deterioration of inner cities during the 1980s and 1990s. A studies show, at the same in time in which crack cocaine became noticed in different American cities, devastating proportions of crime, HIV/AIDS, and minority incarcerations followed. In the years following the fall of communism, the ending if the Vietnam war, and domestically, the civil rights movements, and increasing upward mobility amongst minorities, crack cocaine stood as an unmovable road block in the betterment of American people. As cocaine was actively used drug in the United States for over a century before crack was introduced, the less expensive and overly available smoke able form took the inner city by storm.

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Crack on Black Crime

May 8th, 2008 · 7 Comments ·

Introduction, Chemistry, How It Works, Physiological Effects, Health Risk, Crack Epidemic, Crack on Black Crime, Crack Killed the 80s and 90s, History, Crack in America, References

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Most associations with the Crack cocaine insustry are inner city African Americans youth. This association has proven to be detrimenmtal to the development of African Americans in this country. With limited education, low paying wages, as seen in the diagram many African Americans in inner cities ar confronted with crack use and distribution much more frequent than other races.

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