The Role of Chemistry in History

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References

April 21st, 2008 · Comments Off

|Introduction|Structures and Properties|Ancient Anesthetics|From Co to Pro: History Affects|

|Beyond the Dentist Chair: Novocaine Affects|Allergies|References|

Aufderheide, A., Cartmell, L., Springfield, A., Weems, C., & Arriaza, B. (1991). The Frequency

and antiquity of prehistoric coca-leaf-chewing practices in northern chile:
radioimmunoassay of a cocaine metabolite in human-mummy hair. Latin American Antiquity,
2,
260-268.

Bakutis, A. R. (1941). Continuous spinal anesthesia. The American Journal of Nursing, 41,
1254-1255.

Clark, R.B. (1967). The case for spinal anesthesia. The American Journal of Nursing, 67,294-297.

Feeney, G.C. & Koppanyi, T. (1959). Newly found action of cocaine. Science, New Series, 129,
151-152.

 

 

Leake, C.D. (1925). The historical development of surgical anesthesia. The Scientific Monthly,
20,
304-328.

Levitas, T.C. (1959). Mendel Nevin, d.d.s. Journal of American Dental Society of Anesthesiology, 6, 8-9.

Monteith, B.S. (1901). Spinal cocainization. The American Journal of Nursing, 1, 796-798.

Pletcher, J. & Sax, M. (1969). Local anesthetics: Significance of hydrogen bonding in mechanism of action. Science, New Series, 166, 1546-1548.

Smith, A.H. (1927). The discovery of anesthesia. The Scientific Monthly. 24. 64-70.

Snyder, S.H. (1999). Drugs for a new millennium. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 354, 1985-1994.

http://www.seeklyrics.com/lyrics/Green-Day/Give-Me-Novacaine.html

http://www.drugs.com/pro/novocaine.html

http://www.moleculeoftheday.com/2006/05/01/procaine/

http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/epa1202l.jpg

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/pharmaceuticals/pages/novocain.html

 

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Categories: Procaine (Novocaine)

Allergies

April 21st, 2008 · Comments Off

|Introduction|Structures and Properties|Ancient Anesthetics|From Co to Pro: History Affects|

|Beyond the Dentist Chair: Novocaine Affects|Allergies|References|

Allergic reactions to Novocaine happen by a case to case basis, and depend on where the drug is injected. Due to the sensitivity of the location, Novocaine injected in the spinal region can respond more adversely then oral injections for dental procedures.

The FDA cautions patients with other allergies or sensitivities to drugs to be careful when being prescribed Novocaine injections. Patients with heart problems or conditions need to use the most caution when receiving Novocaine. Also, any patient already taking a sulfonamide drug should notify the physician because the aminobenzoic acid in the Novocaine molecule stops the action of the sulfonamide.

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Possible Side Effects: Spinal Injection

  • systemic toxicity- symptoms include: dizziness, tremors, blurred vision, convulsions and nervousness
  • hypotension
  • post-spinal headache
  • spinal nerve paralysis
  • palsies
  • respiratory problems
  • nausea and vomiting

There is no specific treatment for systemic toxicity.

The modernization of anesthesia, specifically lidocaine, has become more hypoallergenic and eliminates some of the possible reactions presented by Novocaine.

 

 

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Categories: Procaine (Novocaine)

Beyond the Dentist Chair:Novocaine Affects History

April 21st, 2008 · Comments Off

|Introduction|Structures and Properties|Ancient Anesthetics|From Co to Pro: History Affects|

|Beyond the Dentist Chair: Novocaine Affects|Allergies|References|

As history repeats itself and scientists continuously attempt to find and create new and more effective molecules, Novocaine took the backseat in the anesthetic world when lidocaine entered the scene in the mid-1940s. Just as Novocaine’s structure mimicked the cocaine, lidocaine’s structure relates to the Novocaine.

Pop Culture makes references to Novocaine all the time, especially musicians in songs lamenting heartache and wanting to numb the pain.

Green Day perfected making Novocaine a synonymous for numbing the pain in their song Give Me Novocaine:

Drain the pressure from the swelling,
The sensations overwhelming,
Give me a long kiss goodnight and everything will be alright
Tell me that I won’t feel a thing
So give me Novacaine

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Categories: Procaine (Novocaine)

From Co to Pro: History Affects Novocaine

April 21st, 2008 · 2 Comments

|Introduction|Structures and Properties|Ancient Anesthetics|From Co to Pro: History Affects|

|Beyond the Dentist Chair: Novocaine Affects|Allergies|References|

 

Cocaine may not had been the safest anesthetic choice, but it did however make for a fabulous numbing device. When chemist set out to discover better choices, they sought synthesize a mimic of cocaine with lower toxicity and less dangerous side effects. The result…Procaine!

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In 1905, German chemist Alfred Einhorn synthesized the exact combination of eliminating the bad and mimicking the good from cocaine into his new compound Procaine (Novocaine). Einhorn’s revolutionary discovery, however, sat in his lab in Germany, leaving many bewildered dentist without the new Novocaine to ease the pain.

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Luckily, a curious dentist, Dr. Mendel Nevin was traveling through Europe giving lectures in his field. After a visit to Dr. Einhorn’s lab, Dr. Nevin retrieved some of Einhorn’s procaine. Dr. Nevin then began to make his own procaine back in New York. By 1911, the popularity of the drug became big enough that Nevin had serendipitously started the Novocal Chemical Manufacturing Inc.

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The progression of history and discovery led to Novocaine’s birth which only further propelled the anesthetic market.

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Categories: Procaine (Novocaine)

Ancient Anesthetics

April 21st, 2008 · 2 Comments

|Introduction|Structures and Properties|Ancient Anesthetics|From Co to Pro: History Affects|

|Beyond the Dentist Chair: Novocaine Affects|Allergies|References|

 

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The medical practice of anesthesia and the quest to alleviate a patient’s pain transcends back centuries with different civilizations developing their own unique ways to dull the pain. In modern society, however, the greatest advancement in anesthetics was the discovery of cocaine. Using cocaine as local anesthesia paved the way for the development of Novocaine, which was a safer alternative to cocaine.

Although cocaine was used among the Incas and other societies with a strong cocoa leaf population, it was not until the invention of the hypodermic syringe that cocaine infiltrated mainstream medical society. Cocaine proved to be a solid numbing local anesthetic that was used in mostly oral and eye surgeries.

 Eventually, however, the strong toxicity and addictive nature of cocaine proved dangerous in the field and chemists looked towards making a new and better compound.

 

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Categories: Procaine (Novocaine)

Structure and Properties

April 21st, 2008 · 1 Comment

|Introduction|Structures and Properties|Ancient Anesthetics|From Co to Pro: History Affects|

|Beyond the Dentist Chair: Novocaine Affects|Allergies|References|

 


The chemical formula for Novocaine is C13H20N2O2

  • Novocaine has a benzene ring that completes the aminobenzoic acid of the molecular structure
  • Water soluble, Novocaine is a white crystalline powder
  • Odorless
  • Administered through injection, most commonly in the spine or mouth.
  • Can be used in pure form, but usually prescribed as procaine hydrochloride, HCl added to the molecular mix.
  • Applied topically to specific site (usually mouth/gums or spine)
  • Quickly starts to work in 2-5 minutes, creating a numbed sensation in specific area
  • Wears off within 2-3
  • When injected the molecule blocks the nerves, numbing them from the pain of the procedure
  • novocaine3.txt

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    Categories: Procaine (Novocaine)

    Procaine (Novocaine) Introduction

    April 19th, 2008 · 2 Comments

    |Introduction|Structures and Properties|Ancient Anesthetics|From Co to Pro: History Affects|

    |Beyond the Dentist Chair: Novocaine Affects|Allergies|References|

     

    A throbbing toothache has most likely ended patients in the dentist chair one time or another. Just as the chair reclines and the drill gets fired up, patients quickly request the magic injection that numbs the approaching pain! “Give me, NOVOCAINE!”

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    Scientifically known as procaine hydrochloride, Novocaine is the commercially accepted name of the anesthetic. The synthesis of Novocaine was monumental in the medical field, evolving anesthetic practices from their more dangerous drug roots (i.e. cocaine). The turn of the century discovery of Novocaine and it’s numbing powers has progressed the anesthesia industry and led to the discovery of similar, but more advanced drugs.

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    Categories: Procaine (Novocaine)