The Role of Chemistry in History

The Role of Chemistry in History header image 4

Entries Tagged as 'Testosterone'


May 8th, 2008 · 2 Comments

Back to Intro Chemistry of Testosterone Historical Significance

Discovery and Synthesis

The Future of Testosterone

Works Cited

Berthold, A.A. 1849. Transplantation of tests. Trans. By D.P Quiring. Bull. History

Med., (1944) 16:42-46.

Cohen, Jeffrey, and Bonnie Wheeler, eds. Becoming Male in the Middle Ages. New York

and London: Garland, 1997.

Djerassi, Carl. Steroids Made It Possible. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society,



MEDICAL PROFESSION.” The New York Times 23 Aug. 1889: 2.

Freeman, E., D. Bloom, and E. McGuire. “A Brief History of Testosterone.” The Journal

of Urology 165 (2001): 371-373.

Guthrie, Marisa. “Napoleon Complex; Bonaparte’s Genius is Brilliantly Captured.” The

Boston Herald 8 Nov. 2000.

Greene, Kelly. “When We’Re All 64.” The Wall Street Journal 26 Dec. 2005.

Hoberman, J. M., and C. E. Yesalis. “The History of Synthetic Testosterone.” Scientific American (1995): 76-81.

Hendrickson, James B. The Molecules of Nature. New York: W. A. Benjamin Inc., 1965.

Hoffman, Roald. “For a Few Atoms More.” American Scientist 96 (2008): 104-106.

Klotz, Fia. “Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Criminality.” Uppsala Dissertations (2008).

Koert, William, comp. About the Anabolics Book. 14 Sept. 2006. 8 May 2008 <>.

Leopold Ruzicka. 13 September 1887-26 September 1976

Morley, J., H . Perry. “Androgen deficiency in aging men: Role of testosterone

replacement therapy.” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine ,Volume 135 , Issue 5,(2000): 370 – 378.

Russell, Cheryl. 100 Predictions for the Baby Boom. New York and London: Plenum P,


Strauss, Richard H., ed. Drugs and Performance in Sports. Sydney, Australia: W.B.

Saunders Company, 1987.

Taylor, William N. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete. London: Macfarland and

Company, 1982.

Voy, Robert. Drugs, Sports. and Politics. Champign, Illinois: Leisure P, 1991.

Watts, Janet. Drugs, Steroids and Sports. New York: Franklin Watts, 1988.

Wilson, Jean D., and Claus Roehrborn. “The Long-Term Consequences of Castration in

Men.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 84 (1999): 4324-4331.

Zimmerman, Frank. “Origin and Significance of the Jewish Rite of Circumcision.”

Psychoanalytic Review 38 (1951): 105-114.

[

Categories: Testosterone

The Future of Testosterone

April 25th, 2008 · 1 Comment

Back to Intro

Chemistry of Testosterone Discovery and Synthesis Historical Significance

Anabolic Steroids


Steroids in professional sports

-congressional hearings

-asterisks in the record books

-who to blame?

Impact on the youth

-role models

-high school use

Medicinal Use

[

Categories: Testosterone

Androgen Receptor

April 25th, 2008 · Comments Off on Androgen Receptor

Back to Chemistry of Testosterone 

The main function of the androgen receptor is to transcribe DNA into m(essenger)RNA which regulates gene expression. 


[

Categories: Testosterone


April 25th, 2008 · 2 Comments

Stacking Increases the Likelihood of Acne 


Back to Anabolic Steroids

[

Categories: Testosterone

Steroids Side Effects

April 25th, 2008 · 19 Comments



[

Categories: Testosterone

Anabolic Steroids

April 25th, 2008 · 9 Comments

Introduction to Testosterone Chemistry of Testosterone Future

Historical Significance Discovery and Synthesis



-Scientists in the 1930s discovered that anabolic steroids could facilitate the growth of skeletal muscle in laboratory animals

-This breakthrough led to abuse of these compounds by bodybuilders and weightlifters and then by athletes in other sports.

Adminstering Anabolic Steroids

-orally, injected intramuscularly, or rubbed on the skin when in the form of gels or creams

-these drugs are often used in patterns called cycling, which involves taking multiple doses of steroids over a given time period, stopping for a period, and then beginning again.

-Users combine several different types of steroids in a process known as stacking; the belief is that a variety of steroids will produce an effect on muscle size that is greater but side effects will be decreased

-pyramidding an another common practice in which the user takes the highest level of steroid in the middle of a cycle and then decreases servings towards the end of the cycle

The effects

  • ability to train harder.
  • build muscle mass.
  • help cut down on recovery time after strenuous exercise

Addictive Nature

-User can become psychologically dependent long before he or she becomes physically dependent

-Withdrawal symptoms including: headaches, lethargy and depression are common

Steroid Law

-Anabolic steroids are Class C drugs that can only be prescribed by a doctor.

-Importation of steroids is legal as long as they are only for personal use

-Importation with the intent to distribute is punishable by up to 14 years in prison

[

Categories: Testosterone

Butenandt and Ruzicka

April 25th, 2008 · Comments Off on Butenandt and Ruzicka


                                                        Ruzicka               Butenandt

Butenandt and G. Hanisch published a paper describing “A Method for Preparing Testosterone from Cholesterol.”

Ruzicka and A. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper “On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone.”

Their independent partial syntheses of testosterone from a cholesterol base earned Butenandt and Ruzicka each a share of the 1939 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.


[

Categories: Testosterone


April 25th, 2008 · Comments Off on Brown-Sequard



Near the end of  his life, he made and injected an elixir that was a liquid extract made from the testicles of guinea pigs and
dogs. Brown-Sequard said his formula increased his physical strength and intellectual prowess, relieved his
constipation, and even lengthened the arc of his urine.

[

Categories: Testosterone

Historical Significance

April 25th, 2008 · Comments Off on Historical Significance

Introduction to Testosterone Chemistry of Testosterone Discovery and Synthesis Anabolic Steroids


Cruel Male Leaders

Did heightened testosterone levels contribute to history’s villains?



Napoleon Complex

-The Napoleon complex is named after French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon overcompensated for his short height (lack of testosterone) by seeking power, war and conquest.




Baby Boom

-The “golden age of testosterone reseach” coincides with the increase in newborn’s between 1946 and 1964

-Testosterone was synthetized as a fertility drug







[

Categories: Testosterone

Discovery and Synthesis

April 25th, 2008 · Comments Off on Discovery and Synthesis


Introduction to Testosterone Chemistry of Testosterone Historical Significance

Anabolic Steroids

The Future of Testosterone


Prehistory and Religious Doctrine

-Jewish Circumcision

-Egyptian Fertility Statues found in pyramids

The Middle Ages

-Human Castration

-Serendipitous Discovery that the Testes effect behavior, emotion and overall health

1849-Arnold Berthold

-experimentation of castration on chickens

1889-French Physiologist, Charles Edouard Brown-Sequard

“Rejuvenating therapy for the body and mind”

1918- Leo L. Stanley, resident physician of San Quentin State Prison in California

transplanted testicles removed from recently executed prisoners into inmates: some of whom claimed that they recovered sexual potency

1927- Fred C. Koch, University of Chicago’s Professor of Physiologic Chemistry

In 1927, Koch and his student, Lemuel McGee, derived 20mg of a substance from a supply of 40 pounds of buffalo testicles that, when administered to castrated roosters, pigs and rats, remasculinized them.

1934- Ernst Laquer

purified testosterone from bovine testicles

1935- Adolph Butenandt and Leopold Ruzicka

-funded by pharmaceuticals research labs in Germany and Switzerland respectively, joint synthesis

-the two share the 1939 Nobel Peace Prize

The early 1930s 1950s “The Golden Age of Steroid Chemistry”

Research proved that this newly synthesized compound — testosterone — was a potent multiplier of muscle, strength, and wellbeing.


[

Categories: Testosterone