The Role of Chemistry in History

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April 30th, 2008 · No Comments ·

Introduction to Insulin / Chemical Properties / Methods of Production and Administering / Diabetes / Insulin Affects History / History Affects Insulin

  • if the body does not produce enough insulin to move the sugar into the cells, the resulting high levels of sugar in the blood and the lack of sugar in the cells produce the the symptoms and complications of diabetes
  • Type I: In type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes), more than 90% of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas are destroyed. The pancreas produces little or no insulin. Only about 10% of all people with diabetes have type 1. Most people who have type one diabetes develop the disease before the age of 30.
    • scientists believe that an environmental factor – a viral infection or a nutritional factor in childhood – causes the immune system to destroy the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.
  • Type II: in type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes) the pancreas continues to produce insulin, sometimes even at higher than normal levels. However, the body develops resistance to the effects of insulin, so there is not enough insulin to meet the body’s need. Type 2 diabetes may occur in children and adolescents, but usually becomes progressively more common with age.
    • obesity is the chief risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, and 80 to 90% of people with the disease are obese


  • frequent urination
  • abnormal thirst
  • excessive and quick weight loss
  • excessive hunger
  • blurred vision
  • nausea
  • drowsiness


  • a combination of diet, exercise, education, and medication
  • if a person with diabetes keeps blood sugar levels tightly controlled, complications are less likely to develop
  • avoid sweet foods
  • eat meals on a regular schedule
  • people with diabetes also tend to have high levels of cholesterol in their blood, so limiting the amount of saturated fat in the diet is important
  • Insulin is injected under the skin into the fat layer using either an insulin pen or an insulin pump
  • Insulin is available in three basic forms each with a different speed of onset and duration of action: rapid-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting.
    • The factors that are considered before deciding which insulin is best entail an examination of: the person’s ability to monitor the blood sugar levels and adjust the insulin dosage; the person’s daily activity; the stability of the person’s blood sugar levels from day to day

Tags: Insulin