The Role of Chemistry in History

The Role of Chemistry in History header image 1


May 11th, 2008 · 9 Comments ·

Introduction | History | Chemical Structure | How it Works | Side Effects | How it Changed History | Terms | References


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Properties of H2O

May 8th, 2008 · 8 Comments ·



  • Tetrahedral electron-pair geometry gives it its polar, bent molecular geometry
  • Oxygen atom partially negative and both of the hydrogen atoms partially positive
  • Water molecules bond to each other through hydrogen bonding
  • Water in its liquid state constantly forms and breaks hydrogen bonds which gives water its fluid nature
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May 8th, 2008 · 1 Comment ·

Morphine: An Introduction | Discovery and Synthesis of Morphine | Addiction and Opiate Receptors | | History Affects Morphine: The Hypodermic Needle | History Affects Morphine II: Cultural Antipathy and Anti-Narcotics Law| References



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Blakemore, P., & White, J. (2002). Morphine, the Proteus of Organic Molecules. Chemical Communications, 1159-1168.

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Courtwright, D. (1982). Dark Paradise: A History of Opiate Addiction in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Freemantle, M. (2005, June 5). Top Pharmaceuticals: Morphine. Retrieved Apr. 28, 2008, from

Goldberg, R. (2005). Drugs Across the Spectrum (with InfoTrac ). New York: Brooks Cole.

Hamilton, G., & Baskett, T. (2000). History of Anesthesia. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 47(4), 367-374.

Herbert, R., Venter, H., & Pos, S. (2000). Do Mammals Make Their Own Morphine?. Natural Product Reports, 17, 317-322.

Hodgson, B. (2001). In the Arms of Morpheus: The Tragic History of Morphine, Laudanum and Patent Medicines. Toronto: Firefly Books.

Karch, S. (2005). A Brief History of Cocaine, Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

Le Couteur, P., & Burreson, J. (2003). Napoleon’s Buttons. New York: Tarcher/Penguin.

“Opium Throughout History.” (n.d.). Retrieved Apr. 15, 2008, from

Richards, J. (2002). Opium and the British Empire: The Opium Commission of 1895. Modern Asian Studies, 36(2), 375-420.

Schiff Jr. , P. (2002). Opium and Its Alkaloids. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 66, 186-194.

Schwarz, S., & Huxtable, R. (2001). The Isolation of Morphine. Molecular interventions, 1(4), 189-191.

Shughart, W. (1997). Taxing Choice: The Predatory Politics of Fiscal Discrimination. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Stimmel, B., & Shaffer, H. (1984). The Addictive Behavior. New York: Routledge. Waldron, K. (2007). The Chemistry of Everything. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

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May 8th, 2008 · 7 Comments ·



Water is present in life, even in the driest locations.
Over half of this cactus’ composition is water.

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May 8th, 2008 · Comments Off on References ·

Introduction / DDT molecule / Malaria / World War II

Environmental Problems / Insect Resistance / Begin Using Again?  /  References




Considine, G. (2005) Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Chemistry.  New Jersey: Wiley-Interscience, p. 849.

Couteur, P., & Burreson, J. (2003).  Napoleon’s Buttons.  New York: Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

Glausiusz, J. (2007). Can a maligned pesticide save lives?.  Discover, 28(11), 34-36.

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Harrison, K. (2008, May).  Chemistry, Structures & 3D Molecules. Retrieved May 07, 2008 from

Leary, J., & Fishbein, W., & Salter, L. (1946).  DDT and the Insect Problem.  New York:     McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

Lubick, N. (2007). DDT’s Resurrection.  Environmental Science and Technology, 41(18),    6323-6325.

Malaria Foundation International (1999-2003).  Is DDT still effective and needed in Malaria Control? Retrieved May 07, 2008 from

Milius, S. (1998). Birds’ eggs started to think long before DDT.  Science News, 153(17), 261.

Move against Malaria. (2006).  Nature Medicine, 12(8), 863.

Packard, R. (1997).  Malaria Dreams: Postwar Visions of Health and Development in the Third World.  Medical Anthropology, 17, 279-296.

Pearce, F. (2007). Set free to kill again.  New Scientist, 196(2624), 58-9.

Roberts, D., Laughlin, L., Hsheih, P., & Legters, L. (1997).  DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America.  Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3,      295-302.

Russell, E. (1999). The Strange Career of DDT: Experts, Federal Capacity, and Environmentalism in World War II.  Technology and Culture, 40(4), 770-796.

Tren, R., & Bate, Roger. (2001).  Malaria and the DDT Story.  London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.

Comments Off on ReferencesCategories: DDT


May 8th, 2008 · 2 Comments ·


Bergman, C. (1989, July 28). Tobacco’s cloudy image on the silver screen.

Christian Science Monitor, p.19.

Borio, G. (n.d.) The tobacco timeline. Retrieved April 30, 2008, from

DeFord, S. (1997, May 14). Tobacco; The noxious weed that built a nation. The Washington Post, p.19.

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Lamb, G. M. (2001, February 23). Despite ban, films flaunt cigarettes. Christian Science Monitor, p. 9.

Mancall, P. C. (2004). Tales tobacco told in sixteenth-century Europe. Environmental History, 9(4), 648-678.

NIDA for Teens (n.d). Tobacco. Retrieved April 1, 2008 from

Rifkind, H. (2006, July 29). Smoke it again, sam. The Courier Mail, pp. M08.

Perry, M. (2006, August 18). Understanding nicotine dependence. Practice Nurse, 39-43.


Introduction to Nicotine | A Brief History of Tobacco | Chemical Properties | Addiction | Toxicity | Tobacco and America | Tobacco and the Cinema | References

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May 8th, 2008 · 2 Comments ·

Back to Intro Chemistry of Testosterone Historical Significance

Discovery and Synthesis

The Future of Testosterone

Works Cited

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Djerassi, Carl. Steroids Made It Possible. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society,



MEDICAL PROFESSION.” The New York Times 23 Aug. 1889: 2.

Freeman, E., D. Bloom, and E. McGuire. “A Brief History of Testosterone.” The Journal

of Urology 165 (2001): 371-373.

Guthrie, Marisa. “Napoleon Complex; Bonaparte’s Genius is Brilliantly Captured.” The

Boston Herald 8 Nov. 2000.

Greene, Kelly. “When We’Re All 64.” The Wall Street Journal 26 Dec. 2005.

Hoberman, J. M., and C. E. Yesalis. “The History of Synthetic Testosterone.” Scientific American (1995): 76-81.

Hendrickson, James B. The Molecules of Nature. New York: W. A. Benjamin Inc., 1965.

Hoffman, Roald. “For a Few Atoms More.” American Scientist 96 (2008): 104-106.

Klotz, Fia. “Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Criminality.” Uppsala Dissertations (2008).

Koert, William, comp. About the Anabolics Book. 14 Sept. 2006. 8 May 2008 <>.

Leopold Ruzicka. 13 September 1887-26 September 1976

Morley, J., H . Perry. “Androgen deficiency in aging men: Role of testosterone

replacement therapy.” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine ,Volume 135 , Issue 5,(2000): 370 – 378.

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Strauss, Richard H., ed. Drugs and Performance in Sports. Sydney, Australia: W.B.

Saunders Company, 1987.

Taylor, William N. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete. London: Macfarland and

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Watts, Janet. Drugs, Steroids and Sports. New York: Franklin Watts, 1988.

Wilson, Jean D., and Claus Roehrborn. “The Long-Term Consequences of Castration in

Men.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 84 (1999): 4324-4331.

Zimmerman, Frank. “Origin and Significance of the Jewish Rite of Circumcision.”

Psychoanalytic Review 38 (1951): 105-114.

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May 8th, 2008 · Comments Off on References ·

Introduction, Chemistry, How It Works, Physiological Effects, Health Risk, Crack Epidemic, Crack on Black Crime, Crack Killed the 80s and 90s, History, Crack in America, References


Ashley, Richard (1976). Cocaine: Its History, Uses and Effects. New York, NY: Warner

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Fullilove, R.

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Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Black Adolescent Crack Users in Oakland

and San Francisco, California. Z Am. Med. Assoc. 263: 851-855.


Grogger, , & Willis, Michael (2000). The Emergence of

Crack Cocaine and The Rise of Urban Crime Rates. The Review of Economics

and Statistics. 83 No. 4, 519-529.

Inciardi Ph. D, James (1995).Crack, Crack House Sex, and HIV Risk. Archives of Sexual

Behaviors. Vol. 24, No. 3, 249- 269

Karch, Steven B, (2006). A Brief History of Cocaine: Second Edition. CRC Press.

King, Rufus G (1953). The Narcotics Bureau and the Harrison Act: Jailing the Healers

and the Sick. The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 62, Retrieved May, 5, 2008, from

L.A. Fingerhut, D.D. Ingram, and J.J. Feldman, “Firearm Homicide Among Black

Teenage Males in Metropolitan Counties,” Journal of the American Medical

Association 267 (1992):3054-3058

Larrat, E.P., Zierler , S., & Mayer, K. (1994). Cocaine USe and Heterosexual Exposure to

Immunodeficiency Virus. Epidemiology. Vol. 5, No. 4, 398-403.

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M.F. Goldsmith, “Sex Tied to Drugs = STD spread,” Journal of the Almerican Medical Association 260 (1988):2009.

Reinarman, C., & Levine, H. (1997). Crack In America: Demon Drugs and Social

Justice.Los Angeles: University of California Press.

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Watkins, B., Fullilove, R., & Fullilove, M. Arms against Illness: Crack Cocaine and Drug Policy in the United States. Health and Human Rights, Vol. 2, No. 4, Retrieved May 5, 2008, from

Comments Off on ReferencesCategories: Cocaine

Crack Killed the 80s and 90s

May 8th, 2008 · 1 Comment ·

Introduction, Chemistry, How It Works, Physiological Effects, Health Risk, Crack Epidemic, Crack on Black Crime, Crack Killed the 80s and 90s, History, Crack in America, References

Crack cocaine has significantly shaped history, and especially the 1980’s and 1990’s.

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A study found in The Review of Economics and Statistics, the authors found that by using information provided by 27 different metropolitan areas, that the arrival of crack cocaine led to substantial crime increases in late 1980s and early 1990s.

The number of reported offenses for recorded criminal categories which are murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny theft and auto theft. For each of the seven categories of criminal offenses significant increases were shown to have occurred after the arrival of crack cocaine to those areas.


As you can see from looking at the percentage of change, the rise in crime proved to be overwhelming in these urban areas, “from 1987 through12989, the firearm homicide rate amongst black males age 15 to 19 years of age increased 71 percent to 85.3 deaths per 100,000 populations,” (Fingerhut, 1992) at the same time when teenage fire-arm death were mostly concentrated in metropolitan areas. Many scholars argue that the alarming number of homicides was triggered through crack related violence. “Teenaged dealers started carrying guns to school but no such alliance[s] w[ere] initiated to control the crack epidemic that precipitated the violence”. (Watkins et al, 1998)

Crack proved to be “an unparallel destructive force, undermining safety, stability and health in inner cities.”(Watkins et al. 43) In 1988, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cited Crack use, coupled with the practice of bartering sexual services in exchange for the drug, as a factor in the increase of STD’s (Goldsmith, 1988)

The discovery of crack cocaine is directly responsible for the deterioration of inner cities during the 1980s and 1990s. A studies show, at the same in time in which crack cocaine became noticed in different American cities, devastating proportions of crime, HIV/AIDS, and minority incarcerations followed. In the years following the fall of communism, the ending if the Vietnam war, and domestically, the civil rights movements, and increasing upward mobility amongst minorities, crack cocaine stood as an unmovable road block in the betterment of American people. As cocaine was actively used drug in the United States for over a century before crack was introduced, the less expensive and overly available smoke able form took the inner city by storm.

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Crack on Black Crime

May 8th, 2008 · 7 Comments ·

Introduction, Chemistry, How It Works, Physiological Effects, Health Risk, Crack Epidemic, Crack on Black Crime, Crack Killed the 80s and 90s, History, Crack in America, References


Most associations with the Crack cocaine insustry are inner city African Americans youth. This association has proven to be detrimenmtal to the development of African Americans in this country. With limited education, low paying wages, as seen in the diagram many African Americans in inner cities ar confronted with crack use and distribution much more frequent than other races.

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